Pharmacognostic evaluation of medicinally important mangroves Avicennia marina and Sonneratia apetala
Avicennia marina Forssk. (Avicenniaceae) and Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham. (Lythraceae) are two mangrove trees, found in intermediate estuarine zones. Leaves of A. marina have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic activities whereas leaves of S. apetala are reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Though flavonoids, glucosides, and triterpenoids like betulin, lupeol, avicenol etc are reported to be present, no chromatographic method exists till date for their quality evaluation. In the present study, macroscopic and microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical and safety profile of their leaves has been evaluated and discussed. Findings of this study can be useful as reference information in order to evaluate quality of A. marina and S. apetala leaves. Chromatographic separation was achieved on TLC plates using toluene: methanol (8:1, v/v). A compact spot of ursolic acid at Rf value of 0.30 ± 0.02, β-sitosterol at 0.46 ± 0.02 and lupeol at 0.59 ± 0.02 was observed in the methanolic extracts at 366 nm. Methanolic sulphuric acid reagent (10%) was used as the derivatizing reagent. The method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and can be a useful as an analytical tool for quality evaluation of plants rich in these three triterpenoids.
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