Pharmacognostic, Antimicrobial and hepatoprotective activities of the sub-fractions of Picralima nitida (Durand and Hook) (APOCYNACEAE) seeds

Author : Bruce S.O, Ugwu R.N, Onu J.N, Iloh E.S, Onwunyili A.R

Picralima nitida seed is used ethno medicinally for treating malaria, diarrhea, liver disease and inflammation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial and hepatoprotective activities of the sub-fractions of the ethanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) using nHexane/ ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate/ methanol. The sub-fractions were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial screening using Agar-well diffusion assay and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The antimicrobial screening showed that the most effective VLC fractions at 50mg/ml are ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) and ethyl acetate: methanol (9:1). Ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) inhibited both bacterial and fungal isolates S. aureus 3mm, B. subtilis2mm, E. coli 6.5mm, P. aeruginosa 4.5mm, A. niger 2mm, C. albican 3mm; while ethyl acetate: methanol (9:1) inhibited the growth of only the bacterial (S. aureus 2.5mm, B. subtilis 12mm, E. coli 6mm, P. aeruginosa 4mm). The most effective VLC sub-fractions with hepatoprotective activity are ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) and ethyl acetate: methanol (9:1), which showed percentage inhibition very similar to that of the positive control (silymarin). This study showed that P. nitida seeds have antimicrobial activity which may be useful against opportunistic infections. The plant seeds also have hepatoprotective activity which is useful in managing liver disease and hepatic injury. Thus, this study supports the ethno medicinal uses of Picralima nitida seeds in treatment of infections and liver disease.

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