Hydronephrosis: A tale of water inflammation in nephron

Author : Akil Bhavnagri, Tejas Chaudhary, Vivek Chaudhary, Hiren Maheshwari and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

Hydronephrosis is the enlargement of the parts of the kidney that collect urine from both sides. Bilateral means both sides. Bilateral hydronephrosis occurs when urine is unable to drain from the kidney into the bladder. Hydronephrosis is not itself a disease. It occurs as a result of a problem that prevents urine from draining out of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Disorders associated with bilateral hydronephrosis include: Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy - sudden blockage of the kidneys, Bladder outlet obstruction - blockage of the bladder that does not allow drainage, Chronic bilateral obstructive uropathy - a gradual blockage of the kidneys, Neurogenic bladder - poorly functional bladder, Posterior urethral valves - flaps on the urethra that causes poor emptying of the bladder (in boys), Prune belly syndrome - poorly emptying bladder that causes distention of the belly, Retroperitoneal fibrosis - increased scar tissue that blocks the ureters, Uteropelvic junction obstruction - blockage of the kidney at the point where the ureter enters the kidney, Vesicoureteric reflux - backup of the urine from the bladder up to the kidney. Signs of the problem are often detected in a baby before birth during a pregnancy ultrasound. A urinary tract infection in a newborn baby can signal a blockage in the kidney. An older child who gets repeat urinary tract infections should also be checked for blockage. A higher than normal number of urinary tract infections is often the only symptom of the problem. The following tests can show bilateral hydronephrosis: CT scan of the abdomen or kidneys, IVP (used less often), Pregnancy (fetal) ultrasound, renal scan, Ultrasound of the abdomen or kidneys. Placing a tube into the bladder (Foley catheter) may open the blockage. Draining the bladder, Relieving pressure by placing tubes in the kidney through the skin, placing a tube (stent) through the ureter to allow urine to flow from the kidney to bladder. The underlying cause of the blockage needs to be found and treated once the buildup of urine is relieved. Outlook (Prognosis): Surgery performed while the baby is in the womb or shortly after birth can have good results in improving kidney function. Possible Complications: Kidney damage may result from conditions that cause hydronephrosis. When to Contact a Medical Professional. This problem is often found by the health care provider. An ultrasound during pregnancy can show a blockage in the babyís urinary tract. This allows the problem to be treated with early surgery. Other causes of blockage such as kidney stones can be detected early if people notice warning signs of kidney problems.

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