Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and its associated complications
The present study focused on the effect of Azadirachta indica leaves on diabetes and its associated complications. Crude powder, aqueous, 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of the leaves were administered to normal rats with sucrose load and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic rats in a single dose study. 95% ethanolic extract was found most active and showed significant lowering of blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats and also lowering of postprandial hyperglycemia in normal rats. Therefore, its various fractions were also tested in STZ-induced diabetic rats in single-dose experiment and on the basis of antihyperglycemic activity profile, the chloroform fraction was subjected to detailed study using in vitro and in vivo models. In multiple-dose studies, the chloroform fraction was found effective against various complications of diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and disturbed hepatic and renal functions in high fructose diet fed rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly increased the glucose uptake in treated L6 cells and increased the expression of IRS, AKT and GLUT 4 at both mRNA and protein level. The findings suggest that the chloroform fraction of 95% ethanolic extract of A.indica leaves is competent in combating various symptoms and complications of diabetes mellitus.
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