Advanced trends in treatment of glaucoma

Author : Swati Mittal, Oshin Miranda

Glaucoma is a slow escalating disease which causes the degradation of the retinal ganglionic cells (RGCs). It eventually results in irrevocable blindness if it is not diagnosed properly in time. The various important factors which are present in glaucoma are- increased intraocular pressure, increased glutamate levels, oxidative damage and changes in nitric oxide metabolism. The goal is to reduce the intraocular pressure which can be done by medications, laser procedures, surgical procedures and intraocular devices. The drugs used for the treatment of glaucoma are prostaglandin analogs, alpha-agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and cholinergic agonists. In ophthalmic formulations, emulsions, suspensions and soluble ophthalmic drug inserts (SODI) use of viscoelastic agents have been used in order to enhance the ocular drug delivery in patients as well as to provide a sustained release effect and better therapeutic action. It was observed that some patients are immune to medications and later have to resolve to laser procedures and surgical procedures. The future anti- glaucoma drug or technique should reduce intraocular pressure. It must also be neuroprotective and vasoprotective in nature and restore visual acuity.

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