The methanolic extracts of the leaves and bark of Salix babylonica and their petroleum ether, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions were investigated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. They were also quantitatively assayed for their phenolic contents. Antimicrobial activities were determined against a panel of microorganisms; the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa) and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Antioxidant activity was carried out using ABTS antioxidant assay and phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assay. Total phenolic content was carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of the bark showed the highest total phenolic content, it showed also the highest antioxidant activity. The methylene chloride fraction of the bark showed the strongest antibacterial activity against E. coli. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of the bark showed strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The petroleum ether, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions of the methanolic extract of the bark exhibited moderate antifungal activities against Candida albicans.
Pergularia daemia (P. daemia) is commonly known as Utaranavel, Uttaravarun, Dudhibel. Pergularia daemia plant has been documented for presence of presence of triterpenes, saponins cardenolides and alkaloids. Considering these biological potentials of P. daemia we further investigated the plant for their anti-arthritic activities. Extraction of P. daemia was carried out by continuous hot percolation, using soxhlet apparatus. The observation made on different days of treatment period in freundís complete adjuvant induced arthritis showed that there was a less increased paw swelling and ankle diameters in Diclofenac sodium (DCS) and P. daemia treated animals as compared to control group. The P. daemia was found to be effective in controlling secondary lesions. P. daemia also inhibited the radiological changes that occurred in CFA induced arthritis. Body weight gain in groups receiving P. daemia and DCS was more than control animals. P. daemia was found to be effective in reducing arthritis score, flexion pain test score and mobility test score. Stance score in P. daemia and DCS group was more than control group which indicates that the P. daemia normalized the condition of arthritic rats. P. daemia treated groups showed decrease in WBC count and ESR while increases haemoglobin content and RBC count. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Rheumatoid factor (RF) was decreased in groups which received P. daemia at different doses. Thymus weight was decreased while spleen weight was increased on treatment with P. daemia in CFA induced arthritis. Significant activity of P. daemia in CFA induced arthritis suggests its usefulness in control of various chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
The review of microencapsulation encloses the applications, methods of the preparation the microcapsules and their evaluation. Micro encapsulation is the process of surrounding or enveloping one substance within another substance on a very small scale, yielding capsules ranging from less than one micron to several hundreds of microns in size. Micro encapsulation refers to a phenomenon in which drug compounds are safely encapsulated as a small capsule in order to achieve most stable product. This technology brings a huge impact in the area of pharmaceutical research which also offers special appearance in controlled and target drug delivery systems. The article is a review of classification of microcapsules, drug release mechanism from microcapsules, materials used for microencapsulation, applications of techniques involved in the preparation of microcapsules and evaluation of microcapsules.
Keywords : microencapsulation, Polymeric drug delivery devices, drug release mechanism
Author : S. Gousia Begum, C. Madhusudhan Chetty, Ravikumar Kota, K. Susmitha, P. Komali, S. Jyothi Kiranmai and B. Sri Divya
Glibenclamide is a highly lipophilic drug therefore it faces challenges in solubility and absorption patterns. This study aims to improve the solubility and dissolution characteristics of Glibenclamide by preparing solid dispersion using solvent evaporation technique and to study the effect of particle size and different dissolution media on drug release property. The carrier used was Soluplus as a solubilizer. The solid dispersions were prepared in drug: carrier ratios 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2 1:3, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 by solvent evaporation method. The resultant solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility studies at different pH conditions. The release rate of drug from the capsule formulation was studied. Solid state characterization of solid dispersion has been carried out by DSC, FTIR. Solid dispersions were subjected to accelerated stability studies and were characterized by DSC. Our results describe an effective solid dispersion of glibenclamide with improved solubility and dissolution which results in the improved bioavailability.