Hypertension is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and even more common sequelae of CKD. It is essential to preserve renal function while controlling blood pressure. There is growing evidence that reduction and normalization of proteinuria is a key treatment goal for renal protection. Several clinical studies, mainly but not exclusively in diabetic patients were reviewed, subsequently suggested that anti-hypertensive agents inhibiting the renin– angiotensin system (RAS), such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), achieved better renoprotection than other anti-hypertensive drugs. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), either by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-Receptors blocker (ARB) slows the progression of CKD by reducing the level of proteinuria in the diabetic and non-diabetic CKD resulting in less renal structural damage.
Mangrove vegetation provides many ecological, environmental and socio-economic benefits. Mangroves give enough services to the humanity; people’s ignorance and lack of care have caused degradation of mangroves. Mangrove forests have been utilized for many functions including wood production for timber, Firewood and charcoal. The importance in maintaining ecosystem diversity used as a source for chemical constituents, Extracts and chemicals from mangroves are used mainly in folkloric medicine, as insecticides and pisicides and these practices continue to this day. However the extraction of novel natural chemical compounds from mangroves, in addition to those already known to the pharmacopoeia of the people is in its infancy. People’s participation is important for conservation and management of mangrove ecosystem. Protective measure of Eco - development, natural and artificial regeneration activities should be initiated in mangrove degraded areas.
Keywords : Mangroves, Conservation, Utilization, Medicinal value
Author : Ovees Ahmad Bhat and K. Sivakumar
Title : Mangroves as a potential source of medicines
Targeted drug delivery to tumor sites is one of the ultimate goals in drug delivery. Recent advances in nanoparticles engineering has certainly improved drug targeting, however clinical effects are disappointing. Present review addresses challenges in cancer therapy and current status of tumor targeted drug delivery. Most of the efforts have been directed towards design and surface manipulation of nanoparticles with relative little attention to other aspects. EPR effect based drug delivery offers lower cost of therapy, greater therapeutic effects on more types of tumors and fewer adverse effects. Present review focuses on basic understanding of EPR effect, critical attributes of nanoparticles influencing success of EPR based drug delivery and factors involved in EPR effect. Tumor biology diversity is responsible for heterogeneity of EPR effect which reduces its universal validity. Augmentation of EPR effect overcomes heterogeneity, thus widening its application on more types of tumors. Clinical outlook of SMANCS, clinically successful macromolecular drug is presented to support the concept of EPR effect in tumor targeted drug delivery.
Keywords : EPR effect, tumor targeted drug delivery, nanoparticles, SMANCS
Author : Ganga Srinivasan and Sagar Mane
Title : EPR effect: Promising approach for tumor targeted drug delivery